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  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells


    Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Petcharin Srivatanakul

    Lab Director

    BioEden Asia Co.,Ltd


    Stem cells are special type of cells, which can be found almost in each type of tissue and through
    entire life span in multicellular organism. Their main functions are to provide tissue development,
    homeostasis and reparation of tissue damage. Stem cells are defined as cells that have the capacity to self
    renewal, multipotency/pluriopotency, clonality, and are divided into embryonic stem cells and adult stem


    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a group of adult stem cells naturally found in the body. Adult
    stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in numerous tissues throughout the body that divide to replenish
    dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. To date, other than bone marrow stem cells, MSCs have
    been identified in a variety of tissues1-3, such as adipose tissue, peripheral blood, spleen, brain, synovial
    fluid, dermis, muscle, dental pulp, umbilical cord, placenta, skin, liver, pancreas and intestines that
    differentiate along several mesenchymal lineages. On the other hand, there are significant differences in
    the proliferation and differentiation abilities, and in harvesting procedures among these MSCs.

    In 2007, The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) have agreed that a MSC should
    adhere to plastic in standard culture conditions; express (.95%+) CD105, CD73, CD90 and not express
    (.2%+) CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79a or CD19, HLA-DR and should give at least three
    differentiated lineages: osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondroblastic (needs to be demonstrated by staining of
    in vitro differentiated cell cultures)4. However, isolation of stem cells remains the major obstacle because of
    the lack of universally accepted markers. There are still controversies in obtaining reproducible results by
    the published methods, especially when the differentiation protocols are concerned5-9. Meanwhile, different
    isolation methods cause striking impacts on the differentiation potential of adult stem cells10-11. There is a
    limited number studies comparing the differentiation capacity of stem cells obtained from various sources

    using the same differentiation protocols12-17. Since there is no consistency between the established
    protocols of different labs, it is also quite challenging to interpret the previously reported data.

    MSCs have generated considerable biomedical interest since their multi-lineage potential was first
    identified in 199918. MSCs can differentiate to several cell types and produce important growth factors and
    cytokines19-20. MSCs have ability to modify the response of immune cells thereby associating with immune-
    related disorders, especially autoimmune diseases21-22. Despite the wide distribution of MSCs in the body,
    the bone marrow remains the principal source for the most MSC-based pre-clinical and clinical studies
    where MSCs have mainly been characterized after isolation19. Actually, MSCs are a rare population in bone
    marrow aspirates. The frequency of MSCs is approximately 1/106 nucleated cells in adult bone marrow and
    1/104 nucleated cells in umbilical cord 23. The number of MSCs has been noted to decrease with age24.
    Later on, more primitive MSCs were discovered. Those immunomagnetically separated cells were named
    mesodermal progemitor cells (MPCs)25 or multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs)26.